Wells, A study of the formants of the pure vowels of British English

Phonetic symbols

The phonetic and phonemic symbols used are those of the International Phonetic Association [19].

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Phonemic symbols for RP vowels are as follows:

	/i/ for the vowel of 	heed (= he'd)
	/I/ 			hid
	/E/			head
	/æ/			had (stressed)
	/A/			hard
	/Q/			hod
	/O/			haw'd (rhymes with Maud; may or may not
					be the same as hoard)
	/U/			hood
	/u/			who'd (rhymes with mood)
	/V/			Hud (rhymes with mud)
	/3/			heard (= herd)

The above transcription is called the 'Narrow Transcription' by Jones [21], p. 343].

In accordance with the usual custom, phonetic (allophonic) symbols are placed between square brackets [ ], and phonemic symbols between slants / /.

Square brackets also enclose bibliographical references.