Wells, A study of the formants of the pure vowels of British English

Phonetic symbols

The phonetic and phonemic symbols used are those of the International Phonetic Association [19].

[To see them correctly you need a Unicode-compliant browser set to a Unicode character set that includes IPA. Otherwise, go to the SAMPA version. If the phonetic symbols are correctly displayed below, please select the Unicode version of each page.]

Throughout you can choose [SAMPA] or [Unicode].

Phonemic symbols for RP vowels are as follows:

The above transcription is called the 'Narrow Transcription' by Jones [21, p. 343].

In accordance with the usual custom, phonetic (allophonic) symbols are placed between square brackets [ ], and phonemic symbols between slants / /.

Square brackets also enclose bibliographical references.

* used in preference to the older symbols ɪ, ʊ.