What's the difference between [l-with-a-looped-belt]
and [l-with-a-swung-crossbar]; -- what does a retroflex flap sound like? -- how is cardinal 15 (ram's-horns) different from
card. 16 (turned m)?

(Answers at the bottom of this page)

The sounds of the IPA

An audio cassette or CD now available

Listen to a demonstration of ALL the sounds on the current IPA Chart! The Sounds of the IPA is now available on audio cassette or compact disk. On it you can hear just what every symbol on the Chart represents.

Every consonant sound is presented in the frames [_a] and

every vowel sound is said first on a falling tone and then
on a level tone.

The sounds are presented in the exact order in which they are shown on the current Chart. They are spoken by John Wells, Professor of Phonetics at University College London and former Secretary of the IPA, and Jill House, Senior Lecturer in Phonetics at UCL.

View the script. (Requires Adobe Acrobat Reader: free download here .

The cassette and CD are published on behalf of the International Phonetic Association by the Department of Phonetics and Linguistics, University College London. The cassette and CD are both available through the Department's on-line shop: for further details and information on how to order please visit THE SHOP.

Reduced prices are available for bulk purchases (5 and upwards). Contact us for details. The contents are copyright: it is not permitted to make and sell copies, although institutions such as language laboratories may make a limited number of copies for in-house use.


*Both are laterals: the first is a voiceless fricative, the second a voiced velarized approximant. Hear them on the tape.

**You can hear it in Hindi, in Norwegian, and ... on the tape.

***Both are back and unrounded, close-mid and close respectively. Get a Vietnamese speaker to demonstrate, or ... listen to the tape.

oooPhonetics & Linguistics,
oooUniversity College London,
Gower St., London WC1E 6BT,

and Wolfson House, 4 Stephenson Way, London NW1 2HE.

ooo International Phonetic Association

ooo Browse graphics of the IPA Chart

last revised 2004 December 22

UCL Division of Psychology & Language Sciences