Look at this: [ə].
Do you see a phonetic symbol between the square brackets?
(On my browser I see a schwa.)

The International Phonetic Alphabet in Unicode

Displaying IPA symbols     Inserting IPA symbols in web documents     Unicode decimal numbers for IPA symbols

Displaying IPA symbols

For you to be able to display Unicode phonetic symbols correctly on your web browser,

In this version of this page no font is specified. You can use it to test a font by setting your browser to it. (Another version, which specifies Arial MS Unicode, Lucida Sans Unicode, or MS Mincho, in that order of preference.)

Inserting IPA symbols in web documents

There are two ways to insert Unicode IPA symbols into your HTML files: by using MS Word (97 and later), or by using a numeric code.

Unicode decimal numbers for IPA symbols

The Unicode manual lists code numbers only in hexadecimal, while HTML numeric entities may be entered either as decimal (see above) or as hexadecimal; in the latter case, you must include a letter x after #, thus for θɪŋ write θɪŋ. Here they are listed with their decimal numbers.

Alphabetic | Spacing diacritics | Non-spacing diacritics


(excluding the standard characters a-z)

ɑ 593 open back unrounded
ɐ 592 open-mid schwa
ɒ 594 open back rounded
æ 230 raised open front unrounded
ɓ 595 vd bilabial implosive
ʙ 665 vd bilabial trill
β 946 vd bilabial fricative
ɔ 596 open-mid back rounded
ɕ 597 vl alveolopalatal fricative
ç 231 vl palatal fricative
ɗ 599 vd alveolar implosive
ɖ 598 vd retroflex plosive
ð 240 vd dental fricative
ʤ 676 vd postalveolar affricate
ə 601 schwa
ɘ 600 close-mid schwa
ɚ 602 rhotacized schwa
ɛ 603 open-mid front unrounded
ɜ 604 open-mid central
ɝ 605 rhotacized open-mid central
ɞ 606 open-mid central rounded
ɟ 607 vd palatal plosive
ʄ 644 vd palatal implosive
ɠ 608 vd velar implosive
ɢ 610 vd uvular plosive
ʛ 667 vd uvular implosive
ɦ 614 vd glottal fricative
ɧ 615 vl multiple-place fricative
ħ 295 vl pharyngeal fricative
ɥ 613 labial-palatal approximant
ʜ 668 vl epiglottal fricative
ɨ 616 close central unrounded
ɪ 618 lax close front unrounded
ʝ 669 vd palatal fricative
ɭ 621 vd retroflex lateral
ɬ 620 vl alveolar lateral fricative
ɫ 619 velarized vd alveolar lateral
ɮ 622 vd alveolar lateral fricative
ʟ 671 vd velar lateral
ɱ 625 vd labiodental nasal
ɯ 623 close back unrounded
ɰ 624 velar approximant
ŋ 331 vd velar nasal
ɳ 627 vd retroflex nasal
ɲ 626 vd palatal nasal
ɴ 628 vd uvular nasal
ø 248 front close-mid rounded
ɵ 629 rounded schwa
ɸ 632 vl bilabial fricative
θ 952 vl dental fricative
œ 339 front open-mid rounded
ɶ 630 front open rounded
ʘ 664 bilabial click
ɹ 633 vd postalveolar approximant
ɺ 634 vd alveolar lateral flap
ɾ 638 vd alveolar tap
ɻ 635 vd retroflex approximant
ʀ 640 vd uvular trill
ʁ 641 vd uvular fricative
ɽ 637 vd retroflex flap
ʂ 642 vl retroflex fricative
ʃ 643 vl postalveolar fricative
ʈ 648 vl retroflex plosive
ʧ 679 vl postalveolar affricate
ʉ 649 close central rounded
ʋ 651 vd labiodental approximant
ʊ 650 lax close back rounded
ʌ 652 open-mid back unrounded
ɣ 611 vd velar fricative
ɤ 612 close-mid back unrounded
ʍ 653 vl labial-velar fricative
χ 967 vl uvular fricative
ʎ 654 vd palatal lateral
ʏ 655 lax close front rounded
ʑ 657 vd alveolopalatal fricative
ʐ 656 vd retroflex fricative
ʒ 658 vd postalveolar fricative
ʔ 660 glottal plosive
ʡ 673 vd epiglottal plosive
ʕ 661 vd pharyngeal fricative
ʢ 674 vd epiglottal fricative
ǀ 448 dental click
ǁ 449 alveolar lateral click
ǂ 450 alveolar click
ǃ 451 retroflex click

Top of lists

Spacing diacritics and suprasegmentals

  • To study these, you may find it helpful to set your browser text size to Largest.

    ˈ 712 (primary) stress mark
    ˌ 716 secondary stress
    ː 720 length mark
    ˑ 721 half-length
    ʼ 700 ejective
    ʴ 692 rhotacized
    ʰ 688 aspirated
    ʱ 689 breathy-voice-aspirated
    ʲ 690 palatalized
    ʷ 695 labialized
    ˠ 736 velarized
    ˤ 740 pharyngealized
    ˞ 734 rhotacized
    ɚ 602 rhotacized schwa
  • Note the ready-made character ɚ 602, combining ə 601 and ˞ 734.

    Top of lists

    Non-spacing diacritics and suprasegmentals

    As you can see, several of these are unsatisfactory, particularly in smaller sizes. They are shown here with an appropriate supporting base character. When composing a text in HTML, enter the diacritic after the base character, thus (syllabic n) n̥. The browser automatically backspaces the diacritic, but by a constant amount, which may or may not produce a satisfactory result.

    n̥ d̥ 805 voiceless
    ŋ̊ 778 voiceless (use if character has descender)
    b̤ a̤ 804 breathy voiced
    t̪ d̪ 810 dental
    s̬ t̬ 812 voiced
    b̰ a̰ 816 creaky voiced
    t̺ d̺ 826 apical
    t̼ d̼ 828 linguolabial
    t̻ d̻ 827 laminal
    794 not audibly released
    ɔ̹ 825 more rounded
    ɔ̜ 796less rounded
    799 advanced
    l̴ n̴ 820velarized or pharyngealized
    ɫ 619 (ready-made combination, dark l)
    e̝ ɹ̝ 797 raised
    m̩ n̩ l̩809 syllabic
    e̞ β̞ 798 lowered
    815 non-syllabic
    792 advanced tongue root
    793 retracted tongue root
    774 extra-short
    779 extra high tone
    769 high tone
    772 mid tone
    768 low tone
    783 extra low tone
    x͜x 860 035C tie bar below
    x͡x 865 0361 tie bar above


    8595 8593 8594 8599 8600

    Top of lists
    Top of document

    For a much more thorough discussion of displaying and using Unicode characters, see Alan Wood's Unicode resources.

    Page authored by John Wells
    My home page
    Last revised 2007 09 26