"Implicature": an etymological entanglement

From: J L Speranza (jls@netverk.com.ar)
Date: Thu Nov 29 2001 - 10:24:42 GMT

  • Next message: Marjolein Groefsema: "LAGB First Circular"

    Surely today is _one_ (such) day in the history of pragmatics! I discovered
    (one minute ago) that Grice was _hardly_ coining "implicature", since
    "implicatura" had been used by the Romans some years before (in Sid. Ep. 9,
    9 fin). I've yet to analyse what "-aturus" and "-urus" adds to a verbal
    stem (like "implico" or "imply") -- and I wish I had Grice's classics, but
    surely Grice wanted, in 'coining' "implicature" and "implicatum", to play
    on "implication" (as in the stoic "material implication") and the
    difference that _his_ coinage would bear from _that_. A search on the
    Oxford-based Perseus project (Short & Lewis) gives entries (in Appendix I
    and II below, respectively) for "implico", and, more interestingly,
    "implicatura"! (the latter: in Sid. Ep. 9, 9 fin). Best. JL.

    ===
    Appendix One. From
    http://perseus.csad.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0059
    %3Aentry%3D%2321964

    implico (inpl- ), avi, atum, or (twice in Cic., and freq. since the Aug.
    per.) ui, itum (v. Neue, Formenl. 2, 550 sq.), 1, v. a. [in-plico, to fold
    into; hence] , to infold, involve, entangle, entwine, inwrap, envelop,
    encircle, embrace, clasp, grasp (freq. and class.; cf.: irretio, impedio).

    I. Lit.: involvulus in pampini folio se, Plaut. Cist. 4, 2, 64 : ut tenax
    hedera huc et illuc Arborem implicat errans, Cat. 61, 35 ; cf. id. ib. 107
    sq.: et nunc huc inde huc incertos implicat orbes, Verg. A. 12, 743 :
    dextrae se parvus Iulus Implicuit, id. ib. 2, 724 ; cf.: implicuit materno
    bracchia collo, Ov. M. 1, 762 : implicuitque suos circum mea colla
    lacertos, id. Am. 2, 18, 9 : implicuitque comam laeva,grasped, Verg. A. 2,
    552 : sertis comas, Tib. 3, 6, 64 : crinem auro, Verg. A. 4, 148 :
    frondenti tempora ramo, id. ib. 7, 136 ; cf. Ov. F. 5, 220: in parte
    inferiore hic implicabatur caput, Afran. ap. Non. 123, 16 (implicare
    positum pro ornare, Non.): aquila implicuit pedes atque unguibus haesit,
    Verg. A. 11, 752 : effusumque equitem super ipse (equus) secutus Implicat,
    id. ib. 10, 894 : congressi in proelia totas Implicuere inter se acies, id.
    ib. 11, 632 : implicare ac perturbare aciem, Sall. J. 59, 3 : (lues)
    ossibus implicat ignem, Verg. A. 7, 355 .--In part. perf.: quini erant
    ordines conjuncti inter se atque implicati, Caes. B. G. 7, 73, 4 : Canidia
    brevibus implicata viperis Crines, Hor. Epod. 5, 15 : folium implicatum,
    Plin. 21, 17, 65, 105 : intestinum implicatum, id. 11, 4, 3, 9 :
    impliciti laqueis, Ov. A. A. 2, 580 : Cerberos implicitis angue minante
    comis, id. H. 9, 94 : implicitamque sinu absstulit, id. A. A. 1, 561 :
    impliciti Peleus rapit oscula nati,held in his arms, Val. Fl. 1, 264 .
    II. Trop.
    A. In gen., to entangle, implicate, involve, envelop, engage: di immortales
    vim suam ... tum terrae cavernis includunt, tum hominum naturis implicant,
    Cic. Div. 1, 36, 79 : contrahendis negotiis implicari, id. Off. 2, 11, 40 :
    alienis (rebus) nimis implicari molestum esse, id. Lael. 13, 45 : implicari
    aliquo certo genere cursuque vivendi, id. Off. 1, 32, 117 : implicari
    negotio, id. Leg. 1, 3 : ipse te impedies, ipse tua defensione implicabere,
    id. Verr. 2, 2, 18, 44 ; cf.: multis implicari erroribus, id. Tusc. 4,
    27, 58: bello, Verg. A. 11, 109 : eum primo incertis implicantes responsis,
    Liv. 27, 43, 3 : nisi forte implacabiles irae vestrae implicaverint animos
    vestros,perplexed, confounded, id. 40, 46, 6 : paucitas in partitione
    servatur, si genera ipsa rerum ponuntur, neque permixte cum partibus
    implicantur,are mingled, mixed up, Cic. Inv. 1, 22, 32 : ut omnibus copiis
    conductis te implicet, ne ad me iter tibi expeditum sit, Pompei. ap. Cic.
    Att. 8, 12, D, 1: tanti errores implicant temporum, ut nec qui consules nec
    quid quoque anno actum sit digerere possis, Liv. 2, 21, 4 .--In part.
    perf.: dum rei publicae quaedam procuratio multis officiis implicatum et
    constrictum tenebat, Cic. Ac. 1, 3, 11 : Deus nullis occupationibus est
    implicatus, id. N. D. 1, 19, 51 ; cf.: implicatus molestis negotiis et
    operosis, id. ib. 1, 20, 52 : animos dederit suis angoribus et molestiis
    implicatos, id. Tusc. 5, 1, 3 : Agrippina morbo corporis implicata, Tac. A.
    4, 53 : inconstantia tua cum levitate, tum etiam perjurio implicata, Cic.
    Vatin. 1, 3 ; cf. id. Phil. 2, 32, 81: intervalla, quibus implicata atque
    permixta oratio est, id. Or. 56, 187 : (voluptas) penitus in omni sensu
    implicata insidet, id. Leg. 1, 17, 47 : quae quatuor inter se colligata
    atque implicata, id. Off. 1, 5, 15 : natura non tam propensus ad
    misericordiam quam implicatus ad severitatem videbatur, id. Rosc. Am. 30,
    85 ; and in the form implicitus, esp. with morbo (in morbum): quies
    necessaria morbo implicitum exercitum tenuit, Liv. 3, 2, 1 ; 7, 23, 2; 23,
    40, 1: ubi se quisque videbat Implicitum morbo, Lucr. 6, 1232 : graviore
    morbo implicitus, Caes. B. C. 3, 18, 1 ; cf.: implicitus in morbum, Nep.
    Ages. 8, 6 ; Liv. 23, 34, 11: implicitus suspicionibus, Plin. Ep. 3, 9, 19
    ; cf.: implicitus terrore, Luc. 3, 432 : litibus implicitus, Hor. A. P. 424
    : implicitam sinu abstulit, Ov. A. A. 1, 562 : (vinum) jam sanos implicitos
    facit, Cael. Aur. Acut. 3, 8, 87 .--
    B. In partic., to attach closely, connect intimately, to unite, join; in
    pass., to be intimately connected, associated, or related: (homo) profectus
    a caritate domesticorum ac suorum serpat longius et se implicet primum
    civium, deinde mortalium omnium societate, Cic. Fin. 2, 14, 45 : omnes qui
    nostris familiaritatibus implicantur, id. Balb. 27, 60 : (L. Gellius) ita
    diu vixit, ut multarum aetatum oratoribus implicaretur, id. Brut. 47, 174 :
    quibus applicari expediet, non implicari, Sen. Ep. 105, 5 .-- In part.
    perf.: aliquos habere implicatos consuetudine et benevolentia, Cic. Fam. 6,
    12, 2 : implicatus amicitiis, id. Att. 1, 19, 8 : familiaritate, id. Pis.
    29, 70 : implicati ultro et citro vel usu diuturno vel etiam officiis, id.
    Lael. 22, 85 . --Hence,
    1. implicatus (inpl- ), a, um, P. a., entangled, perplexed, confused,
    intricate: nec in Torquati sermone quicquam implicatum aut tortuosum fuit,
    Cic. Fin. 3, 1, 3 : reliquae (partes orationis) sunt magnae, implicatae,
    variae, graves, etc., id. de Or. 3, 14, 52 : vox rauca et implicata, Sen.
    Apocol. med. -- Comp.: implicatior ad loquendum, Amm. 26, 6, 18 . -- Sup.:
    obscurissima et implicatissima quaestio, Gell. 6, 2, 15 : ista
    tortuosissima et implicatissima nodositas, Aug. Conf. 2, 10 init. --
    2. im-plicite (inpl- ), adv., intricately (rare): non implicite et
    abscondite, sed patentius et expeditius, Cic. Inv. 2, 23, 69 .

    ===
    Appendix II: From
    http://perseus.csad.ox.ac.uk/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0059
    %3Aentry%3D%2321958

    implicatura (inpl- ), ae, f. [implico] , an entangling (late Lat.):
    vernaculae, Sid. Ep. 9, 9 fin.

    =

    ==
                            J L Speranza, Esq
    Country Town
    St Michael's Hall Suite 5/8
    Calle 58, No 611 Calle Arenales 2021
    La Plata CP 1900 Recoleta CP 1124
    Tel 541148241050 Tel 542214257817
                          BUENOS AIRES, Argentina
                      http://www.netverk.com.ar/~jls/
                            jls@netverk.com.ar



    This archive was generated by hypermail 2b29 : Thu Nov 29 2001 - 11:31:57 GMT