Supplementary material for

"An Introduction to Word Grammar" by Richard Hudson

29 May 2010
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Some routes through the book

The book's structure is designed to suit at least three different kinds of reader:

  • Type 1: those who want to work straight through it, following the order of the chapters. These readers will work through all the ideas on how our minds work in general before they start to apply these ideas to language and, eventually, to English. This route follows the logic of the general ideas about cognition.
  • Type 2: those who want to see how each general idea applies first to language in general, and then to English in particular, before moving on to the next idea. This route follows the logic of relevance to language.
  • Type 3: those who just want an introductory course in English grammar, with the option of following up theoretical points as needed. This route follows the logic of learning more specific and concrete skills before the more general and abstract ideas that lie behind them.

It's up to you (or your instructor) to decide which route to follow, and of course you can mix and match to suit yourself.

The table below shows how the sections in each of the three parts link up, and, by implication, the order in which you might read them:

  • Type 1 readers: Just follow the order in the book, following each column to the bottom before starting the next column.
  • Type 2 readers: Wherever possible, follow the rows from left to right before going to the next line in the column.
  • Type 3 readers: Start at the top of the third column and work down, with occasional detours to the left.

The book includes some guidance at the end of each section. It also helps type 2 readers by summarising the relevant section in Part 1 at the beginning of most sections in Part 2.

Part 1. How the mind works

Part 2. How language works

Part 3. How English works

1 Introduction to cognitive science

5 Introduction to linguistics

9 Introduction to English linguistics

2 Categorization
2.1 Concepts, categories and exemplars

6 Words as concepts
6.1 Types and tokens



6.2 Word properties


2.2 Taxonomies and the isA relation

6.3 Word classes

10 English Words
10.1 Word classes

2.3 Generalizations and inheritance

6.4 Grammaticality


2.4 Multiple inheritance and choices

6.5 Lexemes and inflections

10.2 Inflections

2.5 Default inheritance and prototype effects

6.6 Definitions and efficiency

10.3 Word-class properties


6.7 Morphology and lexical relations

10.4 Morphology and lexical relations

2.6 Social categories and stereotypes

6.8 Social properties of words

10.5 Social properties

3 Network structure
3.1 Concepts, percepts, feelings and actions

6.9 Levels of analysis


3.2 Relational concepts, arguments and values

7 Syntax
7.1 Dependencies and phrases

11 English Syntax
11.1 Dependencies


7.2 Valency

11.2 Valency

3.3 Choices, features and cross-classification

7.3 Morpho-syntactic features, agreement and unrealized words

11.3 Features,  agreement and unrealized lexemes

3.4 Examples of relational taxonomies
     3.4.1 Kinship



     3.4.2 Interpersonal relations



     3.4.3 Space and time

7.4 Default word order

11.4 Default word order

     3.4.4 Chunking, serial ordering and sets

7.5 Coordination

11.5 Coordination

3.5 The network notion, properties and default inheritance

7.6 Special word orders

11.6 Special word orders

3.6 Do networks need modularity?

7.7 Syntax without modules


4 Network activity
4.1 Activation and long-term memory

8 Using and learning language
8.1 Accessibility and frequency


4.2 Activation and working memory

8.2 Retrieving words


4.3 Building and learning exemplar nodes

8.3 Tokens and types in listening and speaking


4.4 Building induced nodes

8.4 Learning generalizations


4.5 Building inherited nodes

8.5 Using generalizations


4.6 Binding nodes together

8.6 Binding in word-recognition, parsing and pragmatics



8.7 Meaning
    8.7.1 Referential meaning



    8.7.2 Sense and referent



    8.7.3 Meaning and syntax



    8.7.4 Semantic properties



    8.7.5 Meaning, thought and culture



    8.8 Social meaning