last changed in 2002

A dependent which normally precedes its parent and also has a number of other typical characteristics such as not being extractable.

For example, a verb's subject is a pre-dependent because:

(1) *Who do you wonder whether # came?

(2) *Who do you think that # came?

But a word's pre-dependent is always a pre-dependent even if it actually follows. For example:

(3) *Who do you think that not only will # come but will also tell us?

(4) I already know the answer.

(5) I have already seen it. (already is pre-adjunct of have.)

(6) This course is for keen students. (Not: *students keen)

(7) This course is for students keen on syntax. (Not: *keen on syntax students)

The same is true of post-dependents, which are still post-dependents even when they actually precede their parent because of extraction. In short, the contrast between pre- and post-dependents is not merely the contrast between dependents that are before or after their parent; it is a fundamental classification of grammatical functions.







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